Majapahit History

Majapahit was an empire that once stood from 1293 until around the year 1500 AD and is based in eastern Java. The kingdom was once ruled most of the island of Java, Madura, Bali, and many other areas in the archipelago.
Majapahit kingdom arguably the greatest of the Hindu-Buddhist kingdoms in the archipelago and including the last before developing the design of the kingdoms of Islam in the archipelago.

The main sources used by historians is Pararaton ( 'Book of Kings') in the Kawi language and Nagarakretagama in Old Javanese. Pararaton particularly telling Ken Arok (founder Singhasari) but also includes some short sections of the formation of Majapahit.
Meanwhile, Nagarakertagama an ancient Javanese poetry written during the Majapahit golden age under Hayam Wuruk. After that time, what happens is not clear. In addition, there are some inscriptions in Old Javanese language and historical records from China and other countries.
The accuracy of all the Java-language manuscript is opposed. It is undeniable that the resources they contain elements and non-historical myth. However, an outline of these resources in line with historical records from China. In particular, the list of authorities and the state of this kingdom seems quite sure.
After Singhasari away with ease overall Java in 1290, which increase the power Singhasari concern Kublai Khan in China and he sent an embassy to demand tribute. Kertanegara of Singhasari Singhasari monarch refused to pay tribute and send off an expedition to punish Khan, who arrived on the coast of Java in 1293. At that time, a rebel from Kediri named Jayakatwang been killed Kertanegara of Singhasari.

Kertarajasa or Raden Wijaya, the son-in-law Kertanagara, then allied with the Mongols to fight Jayakatwang. After Jayakatwang defeated, Raden Wijaya allied Mongolnya backfired, forcing them pull back its troops are chaotic.

In the year 1293, Raden Wijaya was also built in the territory Pull the fief, Sidoarjo, with its center of Majapahit named. He was crowned with the official name Kertarajasa Jayawarddhana.

Majapahit glory

Most of the Majapahit ruler was Hayam Wuruk, who ruled from 1350 until 1389. At the time, the Majapahit palace thought to have moved to Trowulan (now in Mojokerto region).

Gajah Mada, a grand vizier and regent of Majapahit from 1331 to 1364, extending the imperial power to the surrounding islands. In the year 1377, for a few years after Gajah Mada's death, the Majapahit navy occupying Palembang, conquered the last monarchy


According Kakawin Nagarakretagama Canto XIII-XV, Majapahit territory covers almost as wide as a modern Indonesian territory, including areas of Sumatra in the west and in the eastern part of Maluku and Papua (Wanin), and several Southeast Asian countries.
However, natural and economic constraints indicate that the areas of power does not seem to be centralized under the authority of Majapahit, but connected to each other by trading that may be a monopoly by the king. Majapahit also has a relationship with Campa, Cambodia, Siam, southern Burma, and Vietnam, and even send dutanya ambassador to China.

The fall of Majapahit

After reaching its peak in the 14th century, Majapahit's power gradually weakened.

Apparently civil war (Paregreg War) in 1405-1406, between Wirabhumi against Wikramawardhana. Similarly, the king has been turnover in the dispute of 1450, and the great rebellion launched by a nobleman in the year 1468.

In Javanese tradition there is a kronogram or candrasengkala which reads Sirna ilang kretaning earth. Sengkala This is said in the end of Majapahit and should be read as 0041, the year of Saka 1400, or 1478 AD. Sengkala meaning is "gone gone prosperity of the earth". However, the truth is illustrated by the death of candrasengkala Bre Kertabumi, the 11th king of Majapahit, the Girindrawardhana.
When Majapahit was founded, Muslim traders and the propagator of religion had begun to enter the archipelago. In the late 14th century and early 15th century, Majapahit's influence throughout the archipelago began to decrease. At the same time, a new trading empire based on Islam, the Sultanate of Malacca, began to appear in the western part of the archipelago.

Historical records from China, Portugal, and Italy indicated that there was a transfer of power from the hands of the Majapahit Hindu ruler into the hands of the Duke of Unus, the ruler of the Sultanate of Demak, between the years 1518 and 1521 AD


The capital of Majapahit in Trowulan a large and famous city with great religious festival held every year. Buddhism, Shiva, and Vaishnava (devotee of Vishnu) is embraced by residents of Majapahit, and the king is considered both incarnations of Buddha, Shiva, and Vishnu. Nagarakertagama not mention the existence of Islam, but there seems to be a member of the royal family of Muslims at that time.

* Although the bricks have been used in temples in the past, the architect of the most skilled Majapahitlah use. Majapahit temples of good quality by utilizing geometric tree sap and sugar and red wine as a brick adhesive. Examples of Majapahit temple can still be found today is the Temple of the Rat and the Temple Bajangratu in Trowulan.


Majapahit was an agricultural country and the country as well as trade. Majapahit had their own officials to deal with traders from India and China who settled in the capital of the kingdom as well as many other places in the area of Majapahit in Java.

According to Wang Ta-yuan, China traders, commodity exports at that time Java was pepper, salt, cloth, and older brother birds, while commodity imports are pearls, gold, silver, silk, ceramics, and metal goods. Currency is made from a mixture of silver, tin, lead, and copper. Also, note Odorico da Pordenone, Roman Catholic monk from Italy who visited Java in 1321, said that the Javanese royal palace filled with gold jewelry, silver, and jewels.

Governance structure

Majapahit government structure and composition of the regular bureaucracy during the reign of Hayam Wuruk, and apparently the structure and bureaucracy has not changed much during the development of history. King is considered as the incarnation of gods in the world and he held the highest political authority.


King assisted by a number of officials in implementing the government bureaucracy, with his sons and close relatives of the king has a high position. King's command is usually derived

to the officials below, among others, namely:

* Rakryan Mahamantri Katrini, usually held the sons of kings
* Ri Rakryan Mantri Pakira thought, council of government ministers who carry out
* Dharmmadhyaksa, officials of religious law
* Dharmma-upapatti, religious officials

In ri Pakira Mantri Rakryan thought that there was an important official of Patih Rakryan Mapatih or Hamangkubhumi. These officials can be said as prime minister who shared the king can participate in the implementation of government policy. In addition, there are also

Such royal advisory council whose members are the king's relatives, who called Bhattara Saptaprabhu. Zoning Under the Majapahit king there are a number of local kings, who called liege Bhattara. They are usually a relative or a close relative of the king and in charge of collecting royal revenue, the delivery of tribute, and the defense kingdom in each region. In Pitu Wingun Inscription (1447 AD) stated that the rule of Majapahit was divided into 14 regions subordinates, led by someone who Bhre title. Subordinate areas are:

* Daha
* Jagaraga
* Kabalan
* Kahuripan
* Keling
* Kelinggapura
* Flower Jenar
* Matahun
* Pajang
* Singhapura
* Tanjungpura
* Tumapel
* Wengker
* Wirabumi

Majapahit kings

Here is a list of rulers of Majapahit. Note that there is a gap between administration period Rajasawardhana (ruler of the 8th) and Girishawardhana possible succession crisis caused by the Majapahit royal family broke into two groups.

1. Raden Wijaya, styled Kertarajasa Jayawardhana (1293 - 1309)
2. Kalagamet, styled Sri Jayanagara (1309 - 1328)
3. Sri Gitarja, styled Tribhuwana Wijayatunggadewi (1328 - 1350)
4. Hayam Wuruk, styled Sri Rajasanagara (1350 - 1389)
5. Wikramawardhana (1389 - 1429)
6. Suhita (1429 - 1447)
7. Kertawijaya, styled Brawijaya I (1447 - 1451)
8. Rajasawardhana, styled Brawijaya II (1451 - 1453)
9. Purwawisesa or Girishawardhana, styled Brawijaya III (1456 - 1466)
10. Pandanalas, or Suraprabhawa, styled Brawijaya IV (1466 - 1468)
11. Kertabumi, styled Brawijaya V (1468 - 1478)
12. Girindrawardhana, styled Brawijaya VI (1478 - 1498)
13. Hudhara, styled Brawijaya VII (1498-1518)


Majapahit has become a source of inspiration past glory to the people of Indonesia in the next centuries. Islamic sultanates of Demak, Pajang, and Mataram trying to gain legitimacy for their power through connections to Majapahit. Demak claimed legitimacy of the offspring through Kertabhumi; its founder, Raden Patah, according to the Chronicle, Chronicle of Demak court declared the child Kertabhumi and a Chinese princess, who was sent out of the palace before she gave birth. Conquest of Mataram on Wirasaba year 1615 led by Sultan Agung itself has significance because it is the location of the capital of Majapahit. Royal courts of Central Java has a tradition and lineage of trying to prove a relationship with the king of the Majapahit royal family - often in the form of ancestral tombs, which in Java is an important evidence - and legitimacy are considered to increase through the relationship. Bali in particular have a large influence of Majapahit, and the Balinese consider themselves the true successors of Majapahit culture.

The mover of modern Indonesian nationalism, including those involved with the National Awakening Movement in the early 20th century, has been referred to as an example of Majapahit glorious past of Indonesia. Majapahit sometimes used as a reference political borders of the Republic of Indonesia today. In the run propaganda of the 1920s, the Communist Party of Indonesia delivered his vision of a classless society as the embodiment returning from a romanticized Majapahit. Sukarno was also raised for the benefit of Majapahit national unity, while the New Order to use it for the sake of expansion and consolidation of state power. As the Majapahit, the modern Indonesian state covers a vast territory and politically centered on the island of Java.

Majapahit have a real impact and sustainability in the field of architecture in Indonesia. Depictions of the pavilion (pavilion) of buildings in the capital of Majapahit in Negarakretagama book has become the inspiration for the architecture of the palace buildings and the Temple in Java and community housing complexes in Bali today.

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